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Monument lantern, Bristo Square

Photography of Buildings

I used a Nikon Coolpix 4500 digital camera for most of the photographs of buildings. This was ideal for creating pictures for the web pages as the images could be downloaded to my computer for  resizing and cropping to fit.

I also took slide film photographs using a conventional camera for use in any slide  shows that I may be asked to deliver.


Building References

Listed below are some of the books about buildings that I consulted during this project.

Banister F. (8th ed.1928): A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. B.T. Batsford Ltd.

McKean C. (1992): Edinburgh an Illustrated Architectural Guide. Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland. ISBN 0 950 1462 4 2

Turnbull M.T.B. (1989): Buildings and Landmarks of Edinburgh. W & R Chambers Ltd. ISNB 0 550 20051 7

Turnbull M.T.B. (1989): Monuments and Statues of Edinburgh. W & R Chambers Ltd. ISNB 0 550 20050

Moss growing over an flat stone

Photography of Bryophytes

For general and close up views of bryophytes, I again used my Nikon Coolpix 4500 and supplemented these photographs with conventional slide film images.

The Nikon Coolpix has a "macro" mode that allows for very close up photography and, in some cases, I use a special macro-light that fitted to the camera lens and provided extra illumination for these shots.

Macro Photography

I made extensive use of Heather Angel's text , "The Book of close-up Photography", in order to solve many of the problems I encountered when photographing the mosses and liverworts in the Southside

This book contains a wealth of useful information and I have no hesitation in recommending it to the beginner interested in close-up and macro photography.

Angel H. (1983): The Book of Close-up Photography. Ebury Press. ISBN 0 85223 265 9 





Photomicrography is the term applied to the process of taking photographs using a microscope.

Basically, a camera is attached to the microscope using an adapter which provides support for the camera. Some microscopes are fitted with special camera ports but they tend to be very expensive. A cheaper alternative is to obtain an adapter that clamps the camera to the microscope eyepiece tube.

The book, whose reference appears below, is the best I have found about this subject and it even includes a section on the use of digital cameras.

Rost F. and Oldfield R.(2000): Photography with a Microscope. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0 521 77096

Bryophyte Identification

The two books that I found most useful when trying to identify mosses and liverworts are listed below.

The Collins guide is easy to use and contains some very good photographs of the bryophytes of Britain and Northern Europe.



Bryum capillare capsules
The book by Watson contains a key that relies on characteristics that can only be seen clearly with the aid of a microscope and so is perhaps not so useful to the absolute beginner . However it does provide a very comprehensive coverage of most British Bryophytes.

Jahns H.M. (1983): Ferns Mosses and Lichens of Britain and Northern and Central Europe. Collins. ISBN 0-00-219254-3

Watson E.V. (1981): British Mosses and Liverworts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 29472 X
Environment, Biology and Ecology

Bryophytes grow in a wide range of environments and often share their space with other plants.

The books listed below provide the reader with some fascinating details about their biology, associations and distribution.

Watson E. V. (1964): The Structure and Life of Bryophytes. Hutchison and Co. Ltd. ISBN 09 069784 7

Richardson D.H.S. (1981): The Biology of Mosses. Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISBN 0-632-00782-6

Shaw A.J. and Goffinet B. (editors).(2000): Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 66794 1

Darlington A. (1981): Ecology of Walls. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. ISBN 0 435 60223 3

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This project was funded by the RIAS Millennium Awards Scheme